HOA Statistics

Highlights. Homeowners’ Associations in the United States number 351,000, with an average of 22 new associations forming every day.

  • 58% of homeowners live in HOA communities.
  • $250 is the average monthly HOA membership fee for a single family home.
  • 40 million housing units are part of HOA communities.
  • 62% of newly constructed homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Roughly 8,000 new HOAs form each year.

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Line Graph: New Housing and Homeowners' Associations, constructed and sold from 2009 to 2019

HOA Facts & Statistics

HOAs or community associations govern over planned “covenant” communities. These may include single family homes, townhouses, condominiums, and other groups of homes.

  • 74.5% of homes sold in 2019 were part of HOA communities.
  • 73.9 million Americans live in HOAs, condominium communities, or cooperatives.
  • 3.54 million or 11.1% of homeowners live in “community access secure” neighborhoods, which may include walls or fences.
  • About 26.2 million or 65.5% of HOA housing units are occupied.
  • From 2018 to 2019, HOA resident populations grew 0.54% as homeownership rates remained stagnate.
  • In that same period, the number of associations increased 1.15%.
  • On average, HOA homes are priced 4% higher than observably similar homes outside of HOAs.
  • Homes in HOAs are worth a collective $7.199 trillion.
  • HOAs contribute a collective $280 billion to the national economy each year in the form of volunteer time, taxes, home improvements and housing services, etc.
  • Estimated yearly collections of all fees rose 32.4% between 2005-2015.

HOAs and New Housing

While the rate of new HOAs has slowed, new residential developments includes HOAs at increasing rates. Market statistics indicate that non-HOA homes are more likely to sit empty.

  • 61.8% of newly constructed homes are part of HOA communities.
  • 67.0% of homes in the Western United States are part of HOA communities.
  • 66.9% of new homes in the South are in HOAs.
  • 55.3% of all new homes are in the South.
  • In the Midwest, 47.1% of new homes are part of HOAs.
  • 29.0% of newly constructed homes in the Northeast are part of HOAs.
  • 7.06 million homes were constructed between 2009 and 2019; 57.6% of them were in HOAs.
  • New HOA construction increased 79.9% in the decade between 2009 and 2019.
  • As a percentage of all new housing, new HOA construction increased 34.8%.

HOA Industry

While an estimated 35% of HOAs are operated by neighborhood volunteers, the rise of the HOA has created a market for professional community managers.

  • Approximately 57,500 HOAs have community association managers.
  • An estimated 8,500 community association management companies operate nationwide.
  • These companies employ roughly 102,500 individuals.
  • An estimated 7,500 HOAs are large-scale, meaning they have at least 1,000 lots or homes and a $2 million annual budget.
  • HOAs collect $96 billion per year from homeowners.
  • $27.4 billion or 28.5% of collections go toward reserve funds for maintenance of shared property.

Line Graph: Number of Homeowners' Associations Nationwide, from 1970 to 2019

HOAs Historically

Since the 1970s, American neighborhoods have been increasingly governed by HOAs. “Stranger Danger” of the 1970s and ’80s may have increased popularity.

  • HOA residents increased 208.3% from 1980 to 1990.
  • In that same period, HOA communities increased 261.1%.
  • In the 1970s, residency in HOA communities grew at an annual rate of 35.71%.
  • In the 1980s, the annual growth rate among HOA residents was 20.83%.
  • 5.27% was the annual growth rate among HOA resident populations throughout the 1990s.
  • In the 21st Century, the annual growth rate has been 2.84%.
Homeowners’ Associations from 1970 to 2020
Year Communities Residents
1970 10K 2.1M
1980 36K 9.6M
1990 130K 29.6M
2000 223K 45.2M
2002 240K 48.0M
2004 260K 51.8M
2006 286K 57.0M
2008 301K 59.5M
2010 312K 62.0M
2011 317K 62.7M
2012 324K 63.4M
2013 329K 65.7M
2014 334K 66.7M
2015 338K 68.0M
2016 342K 69.0M
2017 345K 70.0M
2018 347K 73.5M
2019 351K 73.9M

National Map: HOA Membership Among the General Population

HOAs by State

Note that data for states with fewer than 3,000 homeowners’ associations include estimates based on averaged community statistics; these estimates are represented by whole, non-decimal numbers.

  • California and Florida have the highest number of HOAs nationwide, with 97,700 between them.
  • Florida has the highest concentration of community associations, with 67.3% of homeowners belonging to an HOA.
  • West Virginia has the highest rate of homeownership (73.4%) but one of the lowest rates of HOA membership among homeowners (7%).
  • 51.9% of states have confirmed community data.
  • Among states with confirmed correct data, the average HOA membership rate among homeowners is 33.4%.
  • Among the remaining states and territories (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico), the average HOA membership rate among homeowners is 26%.
  • By these estimates, a total of 26.2 million occupied homes nationwide are part of HOA communities; this would mean 65.5% of HOA housing units are occupied.
HOA Membership by State*
State % of Population % Homeowning Residents
Alabama 10% 14%
Alaska 13% 20%
Arizona 30.5% 46.7%
Arkansas 31% 47%
California 35.6% 64.9%
Colorado 40.1% 60.9%
Connecticut 12.9% 19.9%
Delaware 41% 30%
D.C. 20% 66%
Florida 44.5% 67.3%
Georgia 21.8% 34.0%
Hawaii 20% 34%
Idaho 27% 38%
Illinois 30.0% 45.5%
Indiana 12.5% 18.0%
Iowa 15% 22%
Kansas 10% 15%
Kentucky 11% 16%
Louisiana 6% 9%
Maine 21% 30%
Maryland 17.0% 25.4%
Massachusetts 23.8% 38.3%
Michigan 14.1% 19.7%
Minnesota 26.7% 37.1%
Mississippi 3% 5%
Missouri 14.9% 22.2%
Montana 27% 39%
Nebraska 15% 23%
Nevada 16.5% 29.1%
New Hampshire 35% 50%
New Jersey 16.4% 25.9%
New Mexico 14% 20%
New York 18.8% 35.1%
North Carolina 25.9% 39.7%
North Dakota 13% 21%
Ohio 13.8% 20.9%
Oklahoma 7% 11%
Oregon 13.1% 20.8%
Pennsylvania 10.3% 15.1%
Puerto Rico 3% 4%
Rhode Island 27% 44%
South Carolina 25.9% 36.8%
South Dakota 11% 16%
Tennessee 10.1% 15.2%
Texas 20.6% 33.2%
Utah 19.1% 27.1%
Vermont 46% 65%
Virginia 23.2% 35.1%
Washington 31.0% 49.1%
West Virginia 5% 7%
Wisconsin 12.7% 18.9%
Wyoming 17% 23%

*States with confirmed correct data are in bold; data based on averaged estimates are represented by whole, non-decimal numbers.

Alabama

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 HOAs in Alabama.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 10% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 14% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 185,720 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.8%.

Alaska

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in Alaska.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 13% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 20% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 33,116 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 64.7%.

Arizona

  • There are 9,675 HOAs in Arizona.
  • Roughly 2.22 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 229 residents.
  • 30.5% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 46.7% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 80,650 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.3%.

Arkansas

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in Arkansas.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 3% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 5% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 36,999 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.5%.

California

  • There are 49,200 HOAs in California.
  • Roughly 14.07 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 286 residents.
  • 35.6% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 64.9% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 4.68 million homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 54.9%.

Colorado

  • There are 10,300 HOAs in Colorado.
  • Roughly 2.31 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 224 residents.
  • 40.1% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 60.9% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 464,751 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.9%.

Connecticut

  • There are 4,950 HOAs in Connecticut.
  • Roughly 461,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 93 residents.
  • 12.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 19.9% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 178,158 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.0%.

Delaware

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Delaware.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 40.8% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 42.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 111,279 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.3%.

District of Columbia

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in the District of Columbia.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 192,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 19.7% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 65.6% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 79,313 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership district-wide is 41.5%.

Florida

  • There are 48,500 HOAs in Florida.
  • Roughly 9.57 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 197 residents.
  • 44.5% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 67.3% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 3.52 million homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.2%.

Georgia

  • There are 10,750 HOAs in Georgia.
  • Roughly 2.31 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 215 residents.
  • 21.8% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 34.0% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 838,920 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 64.1%.

Hawaii

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Hawaii.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 20.3% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 33.8% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 94,595 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 60.2%.

Idaho

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 HOAs in Idaho.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 26.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 37.5% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 176,084 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.6%.

Illinois

  • There are 18,800 HOAs in Illinois.
  • Roughly 3.81 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 203 residents.
  • 30.0% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 45.5% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 1.46 million homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.0%.

Indiana

  • There are 4,950 HOAs in Indiana.
  • Roughly 840,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 170 residents.
  • 12.5% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 18.0% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 324,173 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 69.3%.

Iowa

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 HOAs in Iowa.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 15.2% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 21.6% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 195,917 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.5%.

Kansas

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Kansas.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 9.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 14.9% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 112,468 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.5%.

Kentucky

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 HOAs in Kentucky.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 10.7% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 16.0% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 187,909 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.0%.

Louisiana

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Louisiana.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 6.2% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 9.3% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 107,847 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.5%.

Maine

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Maine.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 21.4% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 29.7% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 122,889 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 72.2%.

Maryland

  • There are 6,785 HOAs in Maryland.
  • Roughly 1.03 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 151 residents.
  • 17.0% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 25.4% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 378,075 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.8%.

Massachusetts

  • There are 11,100 HOAs in Massachusetts.
  • Roughly 1.64 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 148 residents.
  • 23.8% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 38.3% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 631,097 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 62.2%.

Michigan

  • There are 8,425 HOAs in Michigan.
  • Roughly 1.41 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 167 residents.
  • 14.1% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 19.7% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 559,053 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.6%.

Minnesota

  • There are 7,725 HOAs in Minnesota.
  • Roughly 1.51 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 195 residents.
  • 26.7% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 37.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 593,649 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.9%.

Mississippi

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in Mississippi.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 3.2% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 4.8% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 35,499 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.3%.

Missouri

  • There are 5,485 HOAs in Missouri.
  • Roughly 913,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 166 residents.
  • 14.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 22.2% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 365,806 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.1%.

Montana

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Montana.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 26.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 39.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 117,899 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.9%.

Nebraska

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Nebraska.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 14.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 22.5% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 114,833 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.3%.

Nevada

  • There are 3,390 HOAs in Nevada.
  • Roughly 507,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 150 residents.
  • 16.5% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 56.6% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 188,309 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 56.6%.

New Hampshire

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 HOAs in New Hampshire.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 35.3% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 49.7% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 191,010 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.0%.

New Jersey

  • There are 6,925 HOAs in New Jersey.
  • Roughly 1.46 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 211 residents.
  • 16.4% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 25.9% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 540,219 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 63.3%.

New Mexico

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in New Mexico.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 13.7% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 20.2% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 108,923 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.1%.

New York

  • There are 14,000 HOAs in New York.
  • Roughly 3.66 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 261 residents.
  • 18.8% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 35.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 1.4 million homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 53.5%.

North Carolina

  • There are 14,100 HOAs in North Carolina.
  • Roughly 2.72 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 193 residents.
  • 25.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 39.7% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 1.05 million homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.3%.

North Dakota

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in North Dakota.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 12.6% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 20.6% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 40,774 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 61.3%.

Ohio

  • There are 8,425 HOAs in Ohio.
  • Roughly 1.61 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 191 residents.
  • 13.8% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 20.9% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 651,891 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.0%.

Oklahoma

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Oklahoma.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 7.3% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 11.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 108,885 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.5%.

Oregon

  • There are 3,885 HOAs in Oregon.
  • Roughly 551,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 142 residents.
  • 13.1% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 20.8% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 215,403 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 62.9%.

Pennsylvania

  • There are 6,845 HOAs in Pennsylvania.
  • Roughly 1.32 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 193 residents.
  • 10.3% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 15.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 527,479 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.4%.

Puerto Rico

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in Puerto Rico.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 3.0% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 4.4% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 35,206 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.6%.

Rhode Island

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Rhode Island.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 27.2% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 44.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 110,660 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 61.7%.

South Carolina

  • There are 6,945 HOAs in South Carolina.
  • Roughly 1.33 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 192 residents.
  • 25.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 36.8% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 511,351 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.3%.

South Dakota

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in South Dakota.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 10.9% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 16.0% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 38,402 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.8%.

Tennessee

  • There are 4,880 HOAs in Tennessee.
  • Roughly 690,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 141 residents.
  • 10.1% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 15.2% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 268,276 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.5%.

Texas

  • There are 21,000 HOAs in Texas.
  • Roughly 5.97 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 284 residents.
  • 20.6% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 33.2% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 2.05 million homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 61.9%.

Utah

  • There are 3,430 HOAs in Utah.
  • Roughly 613,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 179 residents.
  • 19.1% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 27.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 195,889 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.6%.

Vermont

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 HOAs in Vermont.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • 46.2% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 65.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 121,247 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.9%.

Virginia

  • There are 8,725 HOAs in Virginia.
  • Roughly 1.98 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 227 residents.
  • 23.2% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 35.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 740,735 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.1%.

Washington

  • There are 10,475 HOAs in Washington.
  • Roughly 2.36 million people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 225 residents.
  • 31.0% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 40.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 908,101 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 63.1%.

West Virginia

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in West Virginia.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 5.4% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 7.3% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 39,013 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 73.4%.

Wisconsin

  • There are HOAs in Wisconsin.
  • Roughly 739,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 139 residents.
  • 12.7% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 18.9% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 302,935 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.2%.

Wyoming

  • There are fewer than 1,000 HOAs in Wyoming.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 16.6% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 23.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 38,661 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.9%.

HOA Communities & Services

Local development planning processes typically mandate an HOA when approving a new community.

  • Most HOAs are formed by real estate developers that then turn them over to an association board when construction nears completion on the new development.
  • Common-interest communities or common-interest developments, including retirement communities, co-op, and vacation timeshare communities, usually have HOAs.
  • Owners of individual units pay dues and maintenance fees for the upkeep of the community’s shared facilities.
  • Shared facilities may include parking lots and garages, laundry rooms, community meeting spaces, dog parks, pools, and clubhouses.
  • HOAs are governed by a group of the individual unit owners or a property manager.
  • Rules are regulations are often restrictive, especially when units are in close proximity to one another.
  • Some residentially zoned jurisdictions are legally required to found HOAs for all new construction.

HOA Experiences

While most residents cite positive experiences, critics of HOAs, including the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), report incidents of selective enforcement and community bullying.

  • 70% of HOA residents claim to have had a good experience with their community associations.
  • 19% of HOA residents claim a neutral experience.
  • 89% say their HOA strives to serve the best interests of the community.
  • 71% of residents say their HOA’s rules protect and enhance property values.
  • 4% of residents say the rules actually harm property values.
  • 32% of HOA residents surveyed indicated that the fact that a home was in an HOA community was a deciding factor in their choice to purchase or rent that home.
  • 29% report they have nothing bad to say about their community association.
  • 21% of HOA residents indicate the best aspects of living in a community association are the neighborhood’s cleanliness and good maintenance.
  • 62% of homeowners say their assessments are “just right” or “too little.”

Hidden Costs & Drawbacks

Homeowners’ fees are growing more than twice as fast as the average home value.

  • $250 is the average monthly assessment for a single-family home.
  • For HOA housing of any type, including condominiums and common interest communities, monthly fees average $170.
  • $700 is typically the high-end cost for an HOA, but fees can vary drastically – into to the thousands – depending on amenities as well as the home’s zip code.
  • Between 2005 and 2015, HOA fees rose 32.4%; home prices increased 15.1% during that time.
  • In 2009, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy determined that HOAs can be detrimental to adjacent neighbors due to their insulated nature.
  • Because HOAs take care of so many of their members’ needs, HOA residents are more likely to vote down municipal taxes and initiatives that would improve the lives of other city residents.
  • HOA homeowners in the south and western regions of the U.S. consistently pay higher premiums than those in other regions.
  • As many as 75% of homes in the south and western regions of the United States are governed by HOAs.
  • Other potential hidden costs include:
    • One-time fees such as a “home transfer fee” upon purchase of a property.
    • Fines for property that does not comply with community regulations.
    • Failure to pay fines may result in a lien on one’s property.
    • HOAs may call for “special assessments,” ostensibly to pay for unplanned major repairs.

Sources

  1. 13 Statistics About HOA Communities That’ll Make You Proud
  2. U.S. Census Bureau (Census), Characteristics of New Housing
  3. Census, American Housing Survey
  4. Community Associations Institute (CAI), Community Associations Remain Preferred Places to Call Home: 2020 Homeowner Satisfaction Survey
  5. CAI, 2019-2020 U.S. National and State Statistical Review for Community Association Data
  6. Science Direct, The Rise and Effects of Homeowners Associations
  7. Community Associations & American Homeowners
  8. Correlation of Homeowners Associations and Inferior Property Value Appreciation
  9. Community Assn Manager Compensation & Salary Survey 2017
  10. Attack of the Killer HOA Fees
  11. Condominiums and Cooperatives
  12. About HOA-USA
  13. Homeowner Association
  14. Homeowners’ Associations Industry in the US – Market Research Report
  15. Homeowners Association Fee (HOA Fee)