HOA Statistics

Last Updated: April 23, 2022

Report Highlights. Homeowners’ associations in the United States manage 355,000 communities, with an average of 22 new associations forming every day.

  • 80% of newly constructed homes sold in 2020 were part of HOA communities.
  • 53% of all homeowners live in HOA communities.
  • $250 is the average monthly HOA membership fee for a single-family home.
  • 40 million housing units are part of HOA communities.
  • Roughly 4,000 new HOA communities form each year.

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Line Graph: New Housing and Homeowners' Associations, homes newly constructed and newly constructed homes sold from 2009 (241,000 constructed, 233,000 sold), 2010 (246,000 and 206,000), 2011 (219k and 203k), 2012 (259k and 257k), 2013 (328k and 316k), 2014 (367k and 323k), 2015 (390k and 368k), 2016 (437k and 411k), 2017 (487k and 457k), 2018 (535k and 472k), 2019 (558k and 509k), and 2020 (593k and 659k)

HOA Facts & Statistics

HOAs or community associations govern over planned “covenant” communities. These may include single family homes, townhouses, condominiums, and other groups of homes.

  • 80.3% of new homes sold in 2020 were part of HOA communities, up 7.5% year-over-year (YoY).
  • 73.9 million Americans live in HOAs, condominium communities, or cooperatives.
  • 3.54 million or 11.1% of homeowners live in “community access secure” neighborhoods, which may include walls or fences.
  • About 26.2 million or 65.5% of HOA housing units are occupied.
  • From 2018 to 2019, HOA resident populations grew 0.54% as homeownership rates remained stagnate.
  • In that same period, the number of associations increased 1.15%.
  • On average, HOA homes are priced 4% higher than observably similar homes outside of HOAs.
  • Homes in HOAs are worth a collective $7.199 trillion.
  • HOAs contribute a collective $280 billion to the national economy each year in the form of volunteer time, taxes, home improvements and housing services, etc.
  • Estimated yearly collections of all fees rose 32.4% between 2005-2015.

HOAs and New Housing

While the rate of new HOAs has slowed, new residential developments includes HOAs at increasing rates. Market statistics indicate that non-HOA homes are more likely to sit empty.

  • 65.1% of new homes completed in 2020 are pare of HOA communities, up 5.5% from 2019.
  • 67.9% of new homes in the Western United States are part of HOA communities, up 1.3% YoY.
  • 72.1% of new homes in the South are in HOAs, up 7.8% YoY.
  • 40.1% of all new homes completed in 2020 are in the South, up 8.4% YoY.
  • In the Midwest, 47.2% of new homes are part of HOAs, up 0.2% YoY.
  • 30.4% of newly constructed homes in the Northeast are part of HOAs, up 4.6% YoY.
  • 7.06 million homes were constructed between 2009 and 2019; 57.6% of them were in HOAs.
  • New HOA construction increased 79.9% in the decade between 2009 and 2019.
  • As a percentage of all new housing, new HOA construction increased 34.8%.

HOA Industry

While an estimated 35% of HOAs are operated by neighborhood volunteers, the rise of the HOA has created a market for professional community managers.

  • Approximately 57,500 HOAs have community association managers.
  • An estimated 8,500 community association management companies operate nationwide.
  • These companies employ roughly 102,500 individuals.
  • An estimated 7,500 HOAs are large-scale, meaning they have at least 1,000 lots or homes and a $2 million annual budget.
  • HOAs collect $96 billion per year from homeowners.
  • $27.4 billion or 28.5% of collections go toward reserve funds for maintenance of shared property.

Line Graph: Number of Homeowners' Associations Nationwide, from 1970 (10,000 HOAs), 1980 (36,000 HOAs), 1990 (130k HOAs), 2000 (223k), 2010 (312k), 2012 (324k), 2014 (334k), 2016 (342k), 2017 (345k), 2018 (347k), 2019 (351k), and 2020 (355k)

HOAs Historically

Since the 1970s, American neighborhoods have been increasingly governed by HOAs. “Stranger Danger” of the 1970s and ’80s may have increased popularity.

  • HOA residents increased 208.3% from 1980 to 1990.
  • In that same period, HOA communities increased 261.1%.
  • In the 1970s, residency in HOA communities grew at an annual rate of 35.71%.
  • In the 1980s, the annual growth rate among HOA residents was 20.83%.
  • 5.27% was the annual growth rate among HOA resident populations throughout the 1990s.
  • In the 21st Century, the annual growth rate has been 2.84%.
Homeowners’ Associations from 1970 to 2019
Year Communities Residents
2019 351K 73.9M
2018 347K 73.5M
2017 345K 70.0M
2016 342K 69.0M
2015 338K 68.0M
2014 334K 66.7M
2013 329K 65.7M
2012 324K 63.4M
2011 317K 62.7M
2010 312K 62.0M
2008 301K 59.5M
2006 286K 57.0M
2004 260K 51.8M
2002 240K 48.0M
2000 223K 45.2M
1990 130K 29.6M
1980 36K 9.6M
1970 10K 2.1M

National Map: HOA Membership Among the General Population

HOAs by State

Note that data for states with fewer than 3,000 homeowners’ associations include estimates based on averaged community statistics; these estimates are represented by whole, non-decimal numbers.

  • California and Florida have the highest number of HOAs nationwide, with 97,700 between them.
  • Florida has the highest concentration of community associations, with 67.3% of homeowners belonging to an HOA.
  • West Virginia has the highest rate of homeownership (73.4%) but one of the lowest rates of HOA membership among homeowners (7%).
  • 51.9% of states have confirmed community data.
  • Among states with confirmed correct data, the average HOA membership rate among homeowners is 33.4%.
  • Among the remaining states and territories (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico), the average HOA membership rate among homeowners is 26%.
  • By these estimates, a total of 26.2 million occupied homes nationwide are part of HOA communities; this would mean 65.5% of HOA housing units are occupied.
HOA Membership by State*
State % of Population % Homeowning Residents
Alabama 10% 14%
Alaska 13% 20%
Arizona 30.5% 46.7%
Arkansas 31% 47%
California 35.6% 64.9%
Colorado 40.1% 60.9%
Connecticut 12.9% 19.9%
Delaware 41% 30%
D.C. 20% 66%
Florida 44.5% 67.3%
Georgia 21.8% 34.0%
Hawaii 20% 34%
Idaho 27% 38%
Illinois 30.0% 45.5%
Indiana 12.5% 18.0%
Iowa 15% 22%
Kansas 10% 15%
Kentucky 11% 16%
Louisiana 6% 9%
Maine 21% 30%
Maryland 17.0% 25.4%
Massachusetts 23.8% 38.3%
Michigan 14.1% 19.7%
Minnesota 26.7% 37.1%
Mississippi 3% 5%
Missouri 14.9% 22.2%
Montana 27% 39%
Nebraska 15% 23%
Nevada 16.5% 29.1%
New Hampshire 35% 50%
New Jersey 16.4% 25.9%
New Mexico 14% 20%
New York 18.8% 35.1%
North Carolina 25.9% 39.7%
North Dakota 13% 21%
Ohio 13.8% 20.9%
Oklahoma 7% 11%
Oregon 13.1% 20.8%
Pennsylvania 10.3% 15.1%
Puerto Rico 3% 4%
Rhode Island 27% 44%
South Carolina 25.9% 36.8%
South Dakota 11% 16%
Tennessee 10.1% 15.2%
Texas 20.6% 33.2%
Utah 19.1% 27.1%
Vermont 46% 65%
Virginia 23.2% 35.1%
Washington 31.0% 49.1%
West Virginia 5% 7%
Wisconsin 12.7% 18.9%
Wyoming 17% 23%

*States with confirmed correct data are in bold; data based on averaged estimates are represented by whole, non-decimal numbers.

Alabama

Alabama homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 homeowners’ associations in Alabama.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people in Alabama live in HOA communities.
  • Around 10% of Alabama’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 14% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 185,720 homes in Alabama are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.8%.

Alaska

Alaska homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in Alaska.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people in Alaska live in HOA communities.
  • Around 13% of Alaska’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 20% of Alaska homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 33,116 homes in Alaska are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 64.7%.

Arizona

Arizona homeowners’ associations have a membership rate on par with the national average.

  • There are 9,675 homeowners’ associations in Arizona.
  • Roughly 2.22 million people in Arizona live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Arizona has an average 229 residents.
  • 30.5% of Arizona’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 46.7% of Arizona homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 80,650 homes in Arizona are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.3%.

Arkansas

Arkansas homeowners’ associations have a membership rate that’s among the lowest in the nation.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in Arkansas.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people in Arkansas live in HOA communities.
  • Around 3% of Arkansas’ population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 5% of Arkansas homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 36,999 homes in Arkansas are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.5%.

California

California homeowners’ associations have a membership rate above the national average.

  • There are 49,200 homeowners’ associations in California.
  • Roughly 14.07 million people in California live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in California has an average 286 residents.
  • 35.6% of California’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 64.9% of California homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 4.68 million homes in California are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 54.9%.

Colorado

Colorado homeowners’ associations have a membership rate above the national average.

  • There are 10,300 homeowners’ associations in Colorado.
  • Roughly 2.31 million people in Colorado live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Colorado has an average 224 residents.
  • 40.1% of Colorado’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 60.9% of Colorado homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 464,751 homes in Colorado are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.9%.

Connecticut

Connecticut homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are 4,950 homeowners’ associations in Connecticut.
  • Roughly 461,000 people in Connecticut live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has an average 93 residents.
  • 12.9% of Connecticut’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 19.9% of Connecticut homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 178,158 homes in Connecticut are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.0%.

Delaware

Delaware homeowners’ associations have a membership rate just below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Delaware.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Delaware live in HOA communities.
  • Around 40.8% of Delaware’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 42.1% of Delaware homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 111,279 homes in Delaware are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.3%.

District of Columbia

D.C. homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well above the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in the District of Columbia.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 192,000 people in D.C. live in HOA communities.
  • Around 19.7% of D.C.’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 65.6% of D.C. homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 79,313 homes in D.C. are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership district-wide is 41.5%.

Florida

Florida homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well above the national average.

  • There are 48,500 homeowners’ associations in Florida.
  • Roughly 9.57 million people in Florida live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Florida has an average 197 residents.
  • 44.5% of Florida’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 67.3% of Florida homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 3.52 million homes in Florida are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.2%.

Georgia

Georgia homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 10,750 homeowners’ associations in Georgia.
  • Roughly 2.31 million people in Georgia live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Georgia has an average 215 residents.
  • 21.8% of Georgia’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 34.0% of Georgia homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 838,920 homes in Georgia are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 64.1%.

Hawaii

Hawaii homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Hawaii.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Hawaii live in HOA communities.
  • Around 20.3% of Hawaii’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 33.8% of Hawaii homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 94,595 homes in Hawaii are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 60.2%.

Idaho

Idaho homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 homeowners’ associations in Idaho.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people in Idaho live in HOA communities.
  • Around 26.9% of Idaho’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 37.5% of Idaho homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 176,084 homes in Idaho are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.6%.

Illinois

Illinois homeowners’ associations have a membership rate on par with the national average.

  • There are 18,800 homeowners’ associations in Illinois.
  • Roughly 3.81 million people in Illinois live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Illinois has an average 203 residents.
  • 30.0% of Illinois’ population lives in HOA communities.
  • 45.5% of Illinois homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 1.46 million homes in Illinois are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.0%.

Indiana

Indiana homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are 4,950 homeowners’ associations in Indiana.
  • Roughly 840,000 people in Indiana live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Indiana has an average 170 residents.
  • 12.5% of Indiana’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 18.0% of Indiana homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 324,173 homes in Indiana are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 69.3%.

Iowa

Iowa homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 homeowners’ associations in Iowa.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people in Iowa live in HOA communities.
  • Around 15.2% of Iowa’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 21.6% of Iowa homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 195,917 homes in Iowa are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.5%.

Kansas

Kansas homeowners’ associations have a membership rate far below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Kansas.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Kansas live in HOA communities.
  • Around 9.9% of Kansas’ population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 14.9% of Kansas homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 112,468 homes in Kansas are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.5%.

Kentucky

Kentucky homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 homeowners’ associations in Kentucky.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people in Kentucky live in HOA communities.
  • Around 10.7% of Kentucky’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 16.0% of Kentucky homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 187,909 homes in Kentucky are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.0%.

Louisiana

Louisiana homeowners’ associations have a membership rate that’s among the lowest in the nation.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Louisiana.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Louisiana live in HOA communities.
  • Around 6.2% of Louisiana’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 9.3% of Louisiana homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 107,847 homes in Louisiana are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.5%.

Maine

Maine homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Maine.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Maine live in HOA communities.
  • Around 21.4% of Maine’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 29.7% of Maine homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 122,889 homes in Maine are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 72.2%.

Maryland

Maryland homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 6,785 homeowners’ associations in Maryland.
  • Roughly 1.03 million people in Maryland live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Maryland has an average 151 residents.
  • 17.0% of Maryland’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 25.4% of Maryland homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 378,075 homes in Maryland are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.8%.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts homeowners’ associations have a membership below the national average.

  • There are 11,100 homeowners’ associations in Massachusetts.
  • Roughly 1.64 million people in Massachusetts live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Massachusetts has an average 148 residents.
  • 23.8% of Massachusetts’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 38.3% of Massachusetts homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 631,097 homes in Massachusetts are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 62.2%.

Michigan

Michigan homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are 8,425 homeowners’ associations in Michigan.
  • Roughly 1.41 million people in Michigan live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Michigan has an average 167 residents.
  • 14.1% of Michigan’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 19.7% of Michigan homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 559,053 homes in Michigan are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.6%.

Minnesota

Minnesota homeowners’ associations have a membership below the national average.

  • There are 7,725 homeowners’ associations in Minnesota.
  • Roughly 1.51 million people in Minnesota live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Minnesota has an average 195 residents.
  • 26.7% of Minnesota’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 37.1% of Minnesota homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 593,649 homes in Minnesota are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.9%.

Mississippi

Mississippi homeowners’ associations have a membership rate that’s among the lowest in the nation.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in Mississippi.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people in Mississippi live in HOA communities.
  • Around 3.2% of Mississippi’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 4.8% of Mississippi homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 35,499 homes in Mississippi are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.3%.

Missouri

Missouri homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are 5,485 homeowners’ associations in Missouri.
  • Roughly 913,000 people in Missouri live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Missouri has an average 166 residents.
  • 14.9% of Missouri’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 22.2% of Missouri homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 365,806 homes in Missouri are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.1%.

Montana

Montana homeowners’ associations have a membership rate just below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Montana.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Montana live in HOA communities.
  • Around 26.9% of Montana’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 39.1% of Montana homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 117,899 homes in Montana are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.9%.

Nebraska

Nebraska homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Nebraska.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Nebraska live in HOA communities.
  • Around 14.9% of Nebraska’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 22.5% of Nebraska homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 114,833 homes in Nebraska are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.3%.

Nevada

Nevada homeowners’ associations have a membership rate above the national average.

  • There are 3,390 homeowners’ associations in Nevada.
  • Roughly 507,000 people in Nevada live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Nevada has an average 150 residents.
  • 16.5% of Nevada’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 56.6% of Nevada homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 188,309 homes in Nevada are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 56.6%.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire homeowners’ associations have a membership rate on part with the national average.

  • There are between 2,000 and 3,000 homeowners’ associations in New Hampshire.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 480,000 people in New Hampshire live in HOA communities.
  • Around 35.3% of New Hampshire’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 49.7% of New Hampshire homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 191,010 homes in New Hampshire are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.0%.

New Jersey

New Jersey homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 6,925 homeowners’ associations in New Jersey.
  • Roughly 1.46 million people in New Jersey live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in New Jersey has an average 211 residents.
  • 16.4% of New Jersey’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 25.9% of New Jersey homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 540,219 homes in New Jersey are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 63.3%.

New Mexico

New Mexico homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in New Mexico.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in New Mexico live in HOA communities.
  • Around 13.7% of New Mexico’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 20.2% of New Mexico homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 108,923 homes in New Mexico are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.1%.

New York

New York homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 14,000 homeowners’ associations in New York.
  • Roughly 3.66 million people in New York live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in New York has an average 261 residents.
  • 18.8% of New York’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 35.1% of New York homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 1.4 million homes in New York are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 53.5%.

North Carolina

North Carolina homeowners’ associations have a membership rate just below the national average.

  • There are 14,100 homeowners’ associations in North Carolina.
  • Roughly 2.72 million people in North Carolina live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in North Carolina has an average 193 residents.
  • 25.9% of North Carolina’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 39.7% of North Carolina homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 1.05 million homes in North Carolina are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.3%.

North Dakota

North Dakota homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in North Dakota.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people in North Dakota live in HOA communities.
  • Around 12.6% of North Dakota’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 20.6% of North Dakota homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 40,774 homes in North Dakota are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 61.3%.

Ohio

Ohio homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 8,425 homeowners’ associations in Ohio.
  • Roughly 1.61 million people in Ohio live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Ohio has an average 191 residents.
  • 13.8% of Ohio’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 20.9% of Ohio homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 651,891 homes in Ohio are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.0%.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma homeowners’ associations have a membership rate far below the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Oklahoma.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Oklahoma live in HOA communities.
  • Around 7.3% of Oklahoma’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 11.1% of Oklahoma homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 108,885 homes in Oklahoma are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 65.5%.

Oregon

Oregon homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 3,885 homeowners’ associations in Oregon.
  • Roughly 551,000 people in Oregon live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Oregon has an average 142 residents.
  • 13.1% of Oregon’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 20.8% of Oregon homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 215,403 homes in Oregon are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 62.9%.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania homeowners’ associations have a membership rate far below the national average.

  • There are 6,845 homeowners’ associations in Pennsylvania.
  • Roughly 1.32 million people in Pennsylvania live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Pennsylvania has 193 residents.
  • 10.3% of Pennsylvania’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 15.1% of Pennsylvania homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 527,479 homes in Pennsylvania are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.4%.

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico homeowners’ associations have a membership rate that’s among the lowest in the nation.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in Puerto Rico.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people in Puerto Rico live in HOA communities.
  • Around 3.0% of Puerto Rico’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 4.4% of Puerto Rico homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 35,206 homes in Puerto Rico are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 68.6%.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island homeowners’ associations have a membership rate on part with the national average.

Rhode Island has a low rate of Homeowners Association membership.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Rhode Island.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Rhode Island live in HOA communities.
  • Around 27.2% of Rhode Island’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 44.1% of Rhode Island homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 110,660 homes in Rhode Island are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 61.7%.

South Carolina

South Carolina homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 6,945 homeowners’ associations in South Carolina.
  • Roughly 1.33 million people in South Carolina live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in South Carolina has 192 residents.
  • 25.9% of South Carolina’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 36.8% of South Carolina homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 511,351 homes in South Carolina are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.3%.

South Dakota

South Dakota homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in South Dakota.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people in South Dakota live in HOA communities.
  • Around 10.9% of South Dakota’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 16.0% of South Dakota homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 38,402 homes in South Dakota are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.8%.

Tennessee

Tennessee homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are 4,880 homeowners’ associations in Tennessee.
  • Roughly 690,000 people in Tennessee live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Tennessee has 141 residents.
  • 10.1% of Tennessee’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 15.2% of Tennessee homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 268,276 homes in Tennessee are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.5%.

Texas

Texas homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 21,000 homeowners’ associations in Texas.
  • Roughly 5.97 million people in Texas live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Texas has 284 residents.
  • 20.6% of Texas’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 33.2% of Texas homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 2.05 million homes in Texas are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 61.9%.

Utah

Utah homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 3,430 homeowners’ associations in Utah.
  • Roughly 613,000 people in Utah live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Utah has an average 179 residents.
  • 19.1% of Utah’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 27.1% of Utah homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 195,889 homes in Utah are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.6%.

Vermont

Vermont homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well above the national average.

  • There are between 1,000 and 2,000 homeowners’ associations in Vermont.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 288,000 people in Vermont live in HOA communities.
  • 46.2% of Vermont’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 65.1% of Vermont homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 121,247 homes in Vermont are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 70.9%.

Virginia

Virginia homeowners’ associations have a membership rate below the national average.

  • There are 8,725 homeowners’ associations in Virginia.
  • Roughly 1.98 million people in Virginia live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Virginia has 227 residents.
  • 23.2% of Virginia’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 35.1% of Virginia homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 740,735 homes in Virginia are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 66.1%.

Washington

Washington homeowners’ associations have a membership rate just below the national average.

  • There are 10,475 homeowners’ associations in Washington.
  • Roughly 2.36 million people in Washington live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA in Washington has 225 residents.
  • 31.0% of Washington’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 40.1% of Washington homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 908,101 homes in Washington are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 63.1%.

West Virginia

West Virginia homeowners’ associations have a membership rate far below the national average.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in West Virginia.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people in West Virginia live in HOA communities.
  • Around 5.4% of West Virginia’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 7.3% of West Virginia homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 39,013 homes in West Virginia are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 73.4%.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin homeowners’ associations have a membership rate well below the national average.

  • There are homeowners’ associations in Wisconsin.
  • Roughly 739,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Each HOA has 139 residents.
  • 12.7% of Wisconsin’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • 18.9% of Wisconsin homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 302,935 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 67.2%.

Wyoming

Wyoming homeowners’ associations have a membership rate that’s lower than average.

  • There are fewer than 1,000 homeowners’ associations in Wyoming.
  • Based on average residency rates, roughly 96,000 people live in HOA communities.
  • Around 16.6% of the state’s population lives in HOA communities.
  • Roughly 23.1% of homeowners are part of HOAs.
  • An estimated 38,661 homes are part of HOA communities.
  • Homeownership statewide is 71.9%.

HOA Communities & Services

Local development planning processes typically mandate an HOA when approving a new community.

  • Most HOAs are formed by real estate developers that then turn them over to an association board when construction nears completion on the new development.
  • Common-interest communities or common-interest developments, including retirement communities, co-op, and vacation timeshare communities, usually have HOAs.
  • Owners of individual units pay dues and maintenance fees for the upkeep of the community’s shared facilities.
  • Shared facilities may include parking lots and garages, laundry rooms, community meeting spaces, dog parks, pools, and clubhouses.
  • HOAs are governed by a group of the individual unit owners or a property manager.
  • Rules are regulations are often restrictive, especially when units are in close proximity to one another.
  • Some residentially zoned jurisdictions are legally required to found HOAs for all new construction.

HOA Experiences

While most residents cite positive experiences, critics of HOAs, including the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), report incidents of selective enforcement and community bullying.

  • 70% of HOA residents claim to have had a good experience with their community associations.
  • 19% of HOA residents claim a neutral experience.
  • 89% say their HOA strives to serve the best interests of the community.
  • 71% of residents say their HOA’s rules protect and enhance property values.
  • 4% of residents say the rules actually harm property values.
  • 32% of HOA residents surveyed indicated that the fact that a home was in an HOA community was a deciding factor in their choice to purchase or rent that home.
  • 29% report they have nothing bad to say about their community association.
  • 21% of HOA residents indicate the best aspects of living in a community association are the neighborhood’s cleanliness and good maintenance.
  • 62% of homeowners say their assessments are “just right” or “too little.”

Hidden Costs & Drawbacks

Homeowners’ fees are growing more than twice as fast as the average home value.

  • $250 is the average monthly assessment for a single-family home.
  • For HOA housing of any type, including condominiums and common interest communities, monthly fees average $170.
  • $700 is typically the high-end cost for an HOA, but fees can vary drastically – into to the thousands – depending on amenities as well as the home’s zip code.
  • Between 2005 and 2015, HOA fees rose 32.4%; home prices increased 15.1% during that time.
  • In 2009, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy determined that HOAs can be detrimental to adjacent neighbors due to their insulated nature.
  • Because HOAs take care of so many of their members’ needs, HOA residents are more likely to vote down municipal taxes and initiatives that would improve the lives of other city residents.
  • HOA homeowners in the south and western regions of the U.S. consistently pay higher premiums than those in other regions.
  • As many as 75% of homes in the south and western regions of the United States are governed by HOAs.
  • Other potential hidden costs include:
    • One-time fees such as a “home transfer fee” upon purchase of a property.
    • Fines for property that does not comply with community regulations.
    • Failure to pay fines may result in a lien on one’s property.
    • HOAs may call for “special assessments,” ostensibly to pay for unplanned major repairs.

Sources

  1. About HOA-USA
  2. 13 Statistics About HOA Communities That’ll Make You Proud
  3. U.S. Census Bureau (Census), Characteristics of New Housing
  4. Census, American Housing Survey
  5. Community Associations Institute (CAI), Community Associations Remain Preferred Places to Call Home: 2020 Homeowner Satisfaction Survey
  6. CAI, 2019-2020 U.S. National and State Statistical Review for Community Association Data
  7. Science Direct, The Rise and Effects of Homeowners Associations
  8. Community Associations & American Homeowners
  9. Correlation of Homeowners Associations and Inferior Property Value Appreciation
  10. Community Assn Manager Compensation & Salary Survey 2017
  11. Attack of the Killer HOA Fees
  12. Condominiums and Cooperatives
  13. Homeowner Association
  14. Homeowners’ Associations Industry in the US – Market Research Report
  15. Homeowners Association Fee (HOA Fee)